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Restoration: Restoration, Restoration of the monarchy in England in The bishops were restored to Parliament, which established a strict Anglican. The term is often used to refer to the entire period from to the fall of James II in , and in English literature the Restoration period (often called the age of. By the end of the 16th century, there were several different English bibles in circulation . in parliament, Charles effectively signalled the start of the English Civil War. . The king's restoration was marked by massive celebrations, lesser versions of .. This page is best viewed in an up-to-date web browser with style sheets.
The majority of regimes sought to compromise in one way or another with the political changes of the Revolutionary era, whether by adopting limited constitutions such as in France, or in the states of southern Germanyor by preserving the advances made in administration under Napoleon, while rejecting constitutional government as in Prussia and Austria. The agreement finally signed at the Congress of Vienna in did not support the radical, counterrevolutionary aspirations of those hoping for a restoration.
In fact, it produced a territorial settlement that both acknowledged many legacies of the Revolutionary period and sowed the seeds for future revolution. Yet the wish for a Restoration was very powerful right after and it would take more than a decade of experimenting with counterrevolution before even its staunchest defenders would abandon it in in favor of other more effective and less incendiary tactics for shoring up a conservative political order in Europe.
Against the necessarily dangerous and violent consequences that for them stemmed ineluctably from the presumptuously optimistic belief that rational individuals could form the basis of a political system born of their own design and consent, these counterrevolutionary philosophers hearkened to an idyllic and peaceful Old Regime characterized by tradition, respect for hierarchy, and humility before Providence. While English conservatives chief among them Burke remained committed to Lockean individualism and an idea of representative government, Continental Restoration philosophers upheld traditions over rights, saw families and communities rather than individuals as constitutive of human society, and yearned for the social organicism and political authoritarianism that reigned supreme in the Old Regime.
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More than attempting a restoration of eighteenth-century monarchy, these Continental thinkers strove to revive the social and political order as it existed before a century of enlightened reform had whittled away at the power and prestige of the church, the monarchy, and the nobility.
As revolutionary ideals and institutions spread across Europe during the Napoleonic wars, more voices joined this late-eighteenth-century chorus, and when Napoleon I r. Most enthusiastic among those desiring a return to the Old Regime order of things were the noblemen, clergymen, and monarchs forced out of power and into exile during the Revolution and the Napoleonic Wars.
Ridiculing the rationalist pretensions of the eighteenth century, interpreting the violence of the Revolution, the Terror, and the Napoleonic Wars as divine punishment for the crime of unbelief, these writers espoused divine right monarchy and the renewed power of the pope across Europe; they lent their support to Louis XVIII r.
Such a view allowed for no compromise or negotiation with the revolutionary legacy; the people of France had to be returned to Christ, the legal system and bureaucracy consolidated under Napoleon had to be dismantled, any idea of founding monarchy on the basis of a man-made constitution had to be abandoned.
For as de Maistre explained, "[Man] can no doubt plant a pip, grow a tree, improve it by grafting, and prune it in countless different ways, but he has never imagined that he had the power to make a tree; how then can he have supposed he had the power to make a constitution? Missionaries traveled to all corners of the kingdom to reintroduce French subjects to the catechism and to deliver the sacraments.
Their six-week-long revivals culminated in spectacular processions in which tens of thousands of followers were enjoined to expiate for the sins of the Revolution, a ritual crowned by the planting of a mission cross, an enormous crucifix adorned with the Bourbon royal lily, representing the reconsecration of the French nation to God, Church, and King.
In contrast, when his more religious, and ultrareactionary brother, Charles Xascended the throne, he not only participated in the missionaries' spectacles as for the Papal Jubilee inhe also passed a series of laws defining sacrilege and indemnifying nobles for the biens nationaux. His regime also favored nobles with lucrative positions in the administration and the clergy; churchmen actively campaigned for ultra-royalist candidates from their pulpits.
In short, it appeared as if the ideal of a restoration of Christian monarchy had been translated into reality in France at least after Similar enactments of the Restoration ideal took place in Spain and in Italy after All over Italy sovereigns proclaimed the renewed alliance between altar and throne afterbut King Victor Emmanuel I r.
They were all imprisoned in the Tower.
From there they were taken to Tyburn and hanged, drawn and quartered on 19 April A further 19 regicides were imprisoned for life. John Lambert was not in London for the trial of Charles I.
The Restoration Period in English Literature: Timeline & Overview
At the Restoration, he was found guilty of high treason and remained in custody in Guernsey for the rest of his life. Sir Henry Vane the Younger served on the Council of State during the Interregnum even though he refused to take the oath which expressed approbation approval of the King's execution.30 vs 1: Dating App in Real Life
At the Restoration, after much debate in Parliament, he was exempted from the Indemnity and Oblivion Act. In he was tried for high treason, found guilty and beheaded on Tower Hill on 14 June Regrant of certain Commonwealth titles[ edit ] Further information: Knights, baronets and peers of the Protectorate The Instrument of GovernmentThe Protectorate 's written constitutions, gave to the Lord Protector the King's power to grant titles of honour.
Over 30 new knighthoods were granted under the Protectorate.
The English Restoration
These knighthoods passed into oblivion upon the Restoration of Charles II, however many were regranted by the restored King. Of the eleven Protectorate baronetciestwo had been previously granted by Charles I during the Civil War — but under Commonwealth legislation they were not recognised under the Protectorate hence the Lord Protector's regranting of themhowever when that legislation passed into oblivion these two baronets were entitled to use the baronetcies granted by Charles I — and Charles II regranted four more.
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Only one now continues: The male line failed in with the death of his grandson, also Edmund Dunchso no one can lay claim to the title.
The one hereditary viscountcy Cromwell created for certain, [a] making Charles Howard Viscount Howard of Morpeth and Baron Gilsland continues to this day. The present Earl is a direct descendant of this Cromwellian creation and Restoration recreation.
Venner rebellion January [ edit ] On 6 Januaryabout 50 Fifth Monarchistsheaded by a wine-cooper named Thomas Vennertried to gain possession of London in the name of "King Jesus". The Enlightenment was defined by an emphasis on reason and logic; the thinkers of the period, moreover, helped develop the modern science that treats the natural world as a knowable and testable subject.
Although the influence of the Enlightenment on the Restoration period is tremendous, it's important to note the humility towards human reason that is common to much Restoration literature.
Oliver Cromwell and the Restoration of the Monarchy
Many Restoration writers viewed the changes to their government, and the violence that these changes brought with them, as the direct result of those who dogmatically held to their ideology. In this sense, the political events that occurred in England provide insight into the skepticism that is at the heart of Restoration literature.
The Theatre One of the most significant aspects of Restoration literature is the return of the theatre. As a result of the influence of religious and political leaders who believed it to be sinful, the theatre had been closed for 18 years. Charles II, however, was a big fan of drama and quickly allowed and encouraged the theatre's presence. This period saw many innovations in theatre, including the important new genre called Restoration comedy.
In stark contrast to the humble spiritual themes that were common to the literature beforeRestoration comedy was frequently crass, largely sexual, and often focused on the interactions of the elite members of English society.