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Like the Aulos Haka models, they are baroque-style instruments with a overtone-rich, complex tone quality that is well-suited to 18th century solo music. The current models have been recently improved over their original namesakes and are now worthy competitors to the Yamaha and Aulos instruments.
Plastic instruments, including the four series recommended above, are intended by their makers for the lowest common denominator of beginning player, and are excruciatingly sharp in pitch unless played at artificially low breath pressures.
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Such playing will achieve the best intonation possible on an inherently sharp instrument, but will cause or exaggerate other problems, such as more frequent clogging, insecure high register response, and weak low notes. Our custom-serviced instruments not only play better in tune than unserviced ones, but they have a richer, more complex tone, more secure high register response, and tend to clog somewhat less as well.
They are designed to inculcate proper playing techniques from the very beginning and eliminate the steep relearning curve when transitioning to a wooden instrument, as most players beyond the beginner stage eventually do. This will enable us to process and fill your order much more quickly and efficiently. Because of the great volume of orders for our custom-tuned plastic recorders, we are not able to accept telephone orders for or answer calls about these items if we are also to continue to provide time-consuming custom service for such inexpensive items; they are what they are.
We must ask for your cooperation and understanding in this regard. Back to Top of Page Tenor Recorders Some tenor recorders have a single or double key on the footjoint to facilitate closing the lowest fingered tone hole. Tenors with a single key can play a low c' but not a c '. Players needing a low c should purchase either a keyless instrument or an instrument with a double key.
Tenor recorders vary a great deal more than smaller instruments in design and ease of playing. It is useful to make a distinction between small or short bore tenors and large or long bore tenors.
In general, small bore tenors have, as one might surmise, a narrower bore toward the bottom, are shorter in length, and are typically keyless instruments; larger bore tenors are appreciably wider in bore toward the foot, are longer in length, and usually have a single or double key on the lowest tone hole, which otherwise could not be reached with the little finger alone.
Small bore tenors are usually said to have a smaller tone in the lowest notes and less reliable intonation and response in the extreme high register, but are smaller, lighter in weight, and less expensive. Large bore tenor typically are fuller in tone in the low register, also have better intonation and high register response, but are larger, longer, heavier, and more expensive. However, things are not always what they seem in the world of tenor recorders. Some keyed tenor recorders, such as the Moeck Rottenburgh instruments, are not in fact large bore recorders but simply small bore instruments to which keys were subsequently added.
So the presence or absence of keys is not necessarily a reliable indication of the size of the bore or overall design of the instrument, conventional wisdom notwithstanding. If you are thinking that this all sounds very confusing, please rest assured that it most certainly is -- little comfort though that may be. Recorder makers seem to be of very different minds about tenor recorder designs. On the other hand, the Mollenhauer workshop in their Canta and Denner instruments, offers two entirely different models of tenor recorder, a small bore instrument with no keywork and a large bore instrument with a double key.
The latter type of instrument is longer in length, fuller and more uniform in tone in the lower register, and plays better in the extreme high register as well; however, such instruments are somewhat heavier in weight, can be more tiring to hold and play for longer periods of time, and are of course more expensive as well. Conventional wisdom in the recorder world would have one believe that players with smaller hands should consider only keyed tenor recorders; however, "it ain't necessarily so.
Be that as it may, the great majority of players who experience difficulty in playing tenor and larger recorders are usually convinced that they have small hands and that that is the source of their problems. Most of the time, the difficulty is due not to having small hands, regardless of what they believe or have been told, but rather to incorrect arm, hand, and finger position. Players having difficulty in playing a tenor recorder purchased from our workshop are invited to call up and receive a free, five-minute tutorial via telephone that will help them identify the source of their problem and provide the tools to remedy it.
Players who optimize the ergonomics of their playing technique may then freely choose from a wide variety of suitable tenor recorders, whereas those who do not do so are condemned to a long and often fruitless search for an instrument that is "easy" to play. No instrument is easy to play if it is being played incorrectly.
Furthermore, simplistic efforts to determine in advance the playability of a tenor recorder by measuring the distance from the first to the third tone hole or the fourth to the seventh tone hole prove to be largely useless.
There are many other factors that need to be taken into account beyond one or two measurements that, taken out of context, are virtually meaningless. Such open-standing keys shade the tone holes they are intended to close and invariably have an adverse effect on tone quality, response, and intonation, especially in the second octave. An instrument must be substantially redesigned if it is to work properly with supplementary keywork.
Adding keys to an existing instrument is a crude solution that creates more problems than it solves. The now-closed Adler-Heinrich workshop in Germany produced excellent inexpensive tenor recorders in their Filius series which were optionally available with additional keywork for the left ring finger and right index finger, allowing players with smaller hands or, as is more often the case, less-than-optimum arm, hand, and finger position, to play comfortably larger bore instruments.
These are sadly no longer available, but the Mollenhauer workshop has recently introduced modified tenors in their Canta and Denner series which have these supplementary keys, albeit at a much higher price point.
However, these instruments may be the only ones that will allow a manually-challenged player to manage a tenor recorder successfully.
The idea was actually pioneered some years ago by the now-defunct Heinz Roessler workshop in Germany. Whereas bent-neck bass recorders see belowwhich were introduced by the Johannes Adler workshop over a half century ago and much more recently adopted by almost all other recorder makers, do provide some appreciable ergonomic advantage by reducing the distance the right arm has to reach and the angle of the right wrist, bent-neck tenors are unfortunately somewhat less successful and at the same time not as necessary.
The abnormally high right hand position and cramped left hand position required by such instruments is found by many players to be quite uncomfortable, and the bent neck limits the range of angles at which the instrument can be held and played. Furthermore, a bent-neck design does nothing to reduce the stretch between the various fingers of the right hand, which is usually the real source of the problem for players who are manually challenged.
Such players are usually much better off with one of the Canta or Denner multi-keyed straight tenor recorders described above. The original Roessler bent-neck tenor also had these additional middle keys, and they were the real reason for that instrument's popularity.
Once again, it should be borne in mind that tenor recorder designs vary a great deal more ergonomically than soprano or alto designs; the hole size and spacing can and do vary greatly from one make and model to another. Players are best advised to seek the help of a dealer with a large and varied inventory of tenor recorders and extensive experience in recorder pedagogy when selecting an instrument to suit their specific needs.
There is no one make and model tenor recorder that is universally suitable. Back to Top of Page Bass and Larger Recorders All bass recorders have a single or double key on the footjoint to facilitate closing the lowest fingered tonehole.
Basses with a single key can play low f but not f. Players who need the capability of playing low f should therefore consider purchasing only a double-keyed instrument.
Most bass and greatbass recorders and virtually all contrabass recorders have other additional keys as well; these reduce the finger stretch for the player and simplify the design problems for the maker by allowing all tone holes to be in their acoustically correct location and of the correct size as well. However, supplementary keywork increases both the weight and the price of an instrument; the advantages of extra keywork must be weighed against the drawbacks.
As with tenor recorders, bass recorders vary greatly in terms of tonehole size and location as well as keywork design and placement. Players with smaller hands or physical disabilities such as arthritis or carpel tunnel syndrome should consult a dealer with a large variety of basses in stock in order to insure that they will obtain the make and model best suited to their particular needs.
Some bass recorders are equipped with a blowpipe or bocal which allows the player to hold the instrument higher and thus reduces the stretch necessary for the right hand to reach the lower keys. Other bass recorders, such as the Huber Model III straight basses and Mollenhauer Kynsecker renaissance bass recorders, are "direct-blown" from the end like smaller recorders; such instruments require fairly long arms and good-sized hands, but typically offer a fuller, more robust sound.Yamaha Outboard Fuel Additives All Outboard Engines
The Mollenhauer Denner series basses are provided with a bocal but may be blown directly by removing the cap if desired. In recent years, most makers have been phasing out their bocal-blow models in favor of direct-blow bent-neck models, which are appreciably easier to design and voice for the maker, as well as easier to hold and play. An interesting variant on the direct-blow bass is the bent-neck bass German: Knickbass or bent bassin which the headjoint is angled back toward the player and coupled to the body through an elbow piece.
This style of instrument, which has in fact been around for over fifty years but has only recently been made by a large number of makers, provides the playing advantages of a direct-blow instrument with the comfort and reduced stretch of a bocal-blow recorder without the limitations of the latter.
However this variant is becoming less common. A modern oboe with the "full conservatoire" "conservatory" in the US or Gillet key system has 45 pieces of keywork, with the possible additions of a third octave key and alternate left little finger F- or C-key.
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The keys are usually made of nickel silverand are silver - or occasionally gold -plated. Besides the full conservatoire system, oboes are also made using the British thumbplate system. Most have "semi-automatic" octave keys, in which the second-octave action closes the first, and some have a fully automatic octave key system, as used on saxophones.
Some full-conservatory oboes have finger holes covered with rings rather than plates "open-holed"and most of the professional models have at least the right-hand third key open-holed. Professional oboes used in the UK and Iceland frequently feature conservatoire system combined with a thumb plate.
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Releasing the thumb plate has the same effect as pressing down the right-hand index-finger key. This produces alternate options which eliminate the necessity for most of the common cross-intervals intervals where two or more keys need to be released and pressed down simultaneouslybut cross intervals are much more difficult to execute in such a way that the sound remains clear and continuous throughout the frequency change a quality also called legato and often called-for in the oboe repertoire.
Other members of the oboe family[ edit ] The members of the oboe family from top: The most widely known and used today is the cor anglais, or English horn, the tenor or alto member of the family. A transposing instrument ; it is pitched in F, a perfect fifth lower than the oboe. The oboe d'amore, the alto or mezzo-soprano member of the family, is pitched in A, a minor third lower than the oboe.
Bach made extensive use of both the oboe d'amore as well as the taille and oboe da cacciaBaroque antecedents of the cor anglais.
Even less common is the bass oboe also called baritone oboewhich sounds one octave lower than the oboe. Delius and Holst both scored for the instrument. Similar to the bass oboe is the more powerful heckelphonewhich has a wider bore and larger tone than the baritone oboe. Only heckelphones have ever been made. Not surprisingly, competent heckelphone players are difficult to find due to the extreme rarity of this particular instrument.
Folk versions of the oboe, sometimes equipped with extensive keywork, are found throughout Europe.
These include the musette France and the piston oboe and bombarde Brittanythe piffero and ciaramella Italyand the xirimia also spelled chirimia Spain. Many of these are played in tandem with local forms of bagpipeparticularly with the Italian zampogna or Breton biniou. Similar oboe-like instruments, most believed to derive from Middle Eastern models, are also found throughout Asia as well as in North Africa.
Most oboists scrape their own reeds to achieve the desired tone and response An oboe reed Most professional oboists make their reeds to suit their individual needs. By making their reeds, oboists can precisely control factors such as tone color, intonation, and responsiveness. Cool Down on a dyno is important since the cooling fans used at most dyno facilities are too small to equal the amount of air coming into the radiator at actual riding speeds. On a dyno, the water temperature will become high enough to cause it to boil out of the radiator after about 4 dyno runs.
This will happen to a brand new engine just as it will happen to a very old engine. Always allow the engine to cool down after 3 runs whenever you use a dyno.
If you're breaking your engine in on the street or racetrack, the high speed incoming air will keep the engine temperature in the normal range. In other words, you don't have to stop by the side of the road to let your bike cool down.
What about "heat cycling" the engine?? There is no need to "heat cycle" a new engine. The term "heat cycle" comes from the idea that the new engine components are being "heat treated" as the engine is run. Heat treating the metal parts is a very different process, and it's already done at the factory before the engines are assembled.
The temperatures required for heat treating are much higher than an engine will ever reach during operation. The idea of breaking the engine in using "heat cycles" is a myth that came from the misunderstanding of the concept of "heat treating". Warm the engine up completely: Because of the wind resistance, you don't need to use higher gears like you would on a dyno machine. The main thing is to load the engine by opening the throttle hard in 2nd, 3rd and 4th gear.
The best method is to alternate between short bursts of hard acceleration and deceleration. Also, make sure that you're not being followed by another bike or car when you decelerate, most drivers won't expect that you'll suddenly slow down, and we don't want anyone to get hit from behind!! Be Safe On The Street! When you're not used to the handling of a new vehicle, you should accelerate only on the straightaways, then slow down extra early for the turns.
Remember that both hard acceleration and hard engine braking deceleration are equally important during the break in process. Do one easy lap to warm up your tires. Take a normal 15 minute practice session and check the water temperature occasionally. The racetrack is the perfect environment to break in an engine!!