Pink v blue - are children born with gender preferences? | News | hockey-jerseys.us
Pink Blue India,Online,Bangalore-Where-to-Shop - Pink Blue India reviews, location, timings, contact details, facilities on Momspresso. Children Designer Wear. Hamleys has abandoned its toy shop 'gender apartheid', scrapping its separate floors for boys and girls and their respective blue and pink signs. we've heard a lot about the innate differences between males and females. Red Gowns - Buy Red Gowns at India's Best Online Shopping Store. Offers Special Price & 1 More. Apple Designer A-line Gown. Blue, Red. ☆. (71). ₹
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Lehenga and salwar kameez have been with us since we can remember. We have been wearing them since childhood and have also seen our elders also wear this at home. However, these have taken different forms and alterations over the years and have presented themselves with all new looks each time. The campaign was started by Laura Nelson, a political blogger who writes under the name "Delilah" and who trained as a neuroscientist. She believes that young children's development can be limited if they play with only one sort of toy.
She was horrified by the "sea of pink" on the girls' floor at Hamleys, which had fluffy animals, cookery sets and hair and beauty-related toys including a beauty salon called "Tantrum".
Pink v blue - are children born with gender preferences?
The boys' department was all action and adventure, with cars, spaceships, science sets and construction toys. Hamleys did not admit that the dumping of the old signs had anything to do with the campaign, saying the move was entirely coincidental and designed to "improve customer flow". When I tweeted the link to the story this morning the responses ranged from "hurrah! But what is the science behind gender and toys? Do boys really prefer blue and girls pink? Would girls always opt for Sylvanian Families over Power Rangers given the choice?
Is there evidence for or against the "gender apartheid"? Pink v blue Kat Arneya science journalist who works for Cancer Research UK, investigated the gender of colour in this Radio 4 documentary earlier this year, Fighting the Power of Pink. Her post for the Guardian here provides a brilliant summary of the scientific evidence. Arney points us towards this research which showed that in general when asked women tend to identify redder colours as their favourite — a finding reported widely as proof that women prefer pink.
In that study Professor Anya Hurlbert from Newcastle University suggested that women might prefer pink as a legacy of their fruit gathering days when the preference helped them identify the berries from the foliage — an idea thoroughly disputed by the Guardian columnist Ben Goldacre here. Interestingly Goldacre quotes in the same piece newspaper articles from the earlier part of the 20th century in which mothers were encouraged to dress their boys in pink and girls in blue, proof he says that clothing tastes change over time.
Back in the days when ladies had a home journal in the Ladies' Home Journal wrote: The reason is that pink being a more decided and stronger colour is more suitable for the boy, while blue, which is more delicate and dainty, is prettier for the girl.
Are girls born liking pink or are they in some way told to? The study that asked the youngest children, aged under two, that Arney could identify was conducted by Professor Melissa Hines at Cambridge University and it concluded that if you ask children under the age of two, there is no colour preference, with both sexes preferring pinker tones and both also prefer rounder shapes.
The sex similarities in infants' preferences for colours and shapes suggest that any subsequent sex differences in these preferences may arise from socialisation or cognitive gender development rather than inborn factors. Dolls v cars Hines's research, the most up to date, did however identify a gendered divide in the preference for toys.
Although not a strict rule, boys were more likely to look at cars and girls at dolls. Previous studies have found that this not only relates to the gender of children but their exposure to androgen "male" hormones in the womb. This American research even showed that there is a similar gendered preference for toys in monkeys leading some to conclude that children are born with gendered tastes in toys. However, Hines's research also identified that at the age of 12 months, boys and girls' preference for dolls was similar By 24 months boys had shifted towards the car image This, Hines suggests, adds evidence to the argument that part of toy taste is acquired rather innate.
The male preference for cars over dolls, or avoidance of dolls, emerges later, suggesting that socialisation or cognitive development, rather than inborn factors, causes the male avoidance of feminine toys. I'm going to talk to some of the researchers in this area but does anyone have any other evidence to add to this?
Get in touch below the line, email your me at polly. Dr Qazi Rahmana psychologist who runs the psychology programme at Queen Mary University of London which he describes as "strongly biological in its analysis of all aspects of human nature"has written in with what is a pretty neat summary of the evidence on colour and toy preference.
He reaches a similar conclusion to Hines: I think the literature is erring on the side of no robust sex differences in either adults or children by "robust" I mean the same finding is replicable However, there are sex differences in other types of cognitive abilities and psychological behaviours like engaging in rough-and-tumble play, certain types of spatial skills but not alland play preferences for objects with moving parts versus those that indicate some kind of individual eg crudely - trucks versus dolls.
Some say the earliest you can measure these abilities is in almost newly born infants, others say the tests only work at about two years of age and so on.
So developing good psychological tests to use in youngsters might be a limitation in some of the science. I think a good test of these preferences is to examine them in kids of are gender nonconforming at a young age compared to children who are gender conforming.
We know that gay men report have strong gender-nonconforming play interests as children. Rahman says that while the evidence is pretty conclusive on colour preferences, he thinks it is more strongly weighted in favour of there being some kind of innate preference for certain toys and games amongst boys.
In this Rahman disagrees with the psychologist Cordelia Finewho argues in her book that almost all aspects of gender is acquired. I've had several messages form readers below the line and by email recommending her book, Delusions of Gender. My colleague Amelia Hill summarised it very well here last year.
I've emailed Fine in Australia and am hoping I'll be able to speak with her about our specific question later. She argues that any small differences between girls and boys are amplified in their socialisation and hard-wired into their brains this way. This is from the summary on her website: In the past decade, we've heard a lot about the innate differences between males and females. So we've come to accept that boys can't focus in a classroom and girls are obsessed with relationships: Calling on years of exhaustive research and her own work in the field of neuroplasticity, Eliot argues that infant brains are so malleable that small differences at birth become amplified over time, as parents, teachers, peers — and the culture at large — unwittingly reinforce gender stereotypes.
Children themselves exacerbate the differences by playing to their modest strengths. They constantly exercise those "ball-throwing" or "doll-cuddling" circuits, rarely straying from their comfort zones. There's a fantastic debate going on below the line with plenty of suggestions of good evidence for me to follow. There are two areas I want to follow and wonder if anyone can help find evidence of: Can anyone recommend people - academics of people who work in marketing - who can talk to me about how toy companies market to children?
In the nature v nurture argument about children's preferences for different toys, research in monkeys mentioned above has bolstered those who believe we're born with feminine or masculine preferences and mystified sceptics.
American researchers showed that monkeys have similar instincts to those observed in small children. The abstract of paper says: We compared the interactions of 34 rhesus monkeys, living within a monkey troop, with human wheeled toys and plush toys. Male monkeys, like boys, showed consistent and strong preferences for wheeled toys, while female monkeys, like girls, showed greater variability in preferences.
Thus, the magnitude of preference for wheeled over plush toys differed significantly between males and females. The similarities to human findings demonstrate that such preferences can develop without explicit gendered socialisation.
We offer the hypothesis that toy preferences reflect hormonally influenced behavioural and cognitive biases which are sculpted by social processes into the sex differences seen in monkeys and humans. Dr Stuart Bastenfrom the department of social policy and intervention at the University of Oxford has just sent in his paper analysing toy preference and gender, which reaches a similar conclusion pdf. As in most of the working papers in the series, the over-riding conclusion of this piece is that both biological and social processes play a crucial role in shaping children's interactions with toys which, in turn, has been found to significantly impact upon an individual's gendered scheme and progression.
Basten also includes this picture from the monkey study, which I quite like. Monkeys playing with toys in Hines study 2.