Dating violence - Wikipedia
Domestic violence is violence or other abuse by one person against another in a domestic .. Main articles: Sexual abuse, Marital rape, and Sexual violence by intimate partners. Sexual abuse, is defined by World Health Organization as any . Learn the signs of dating violence and abuse and how to get help. Because coverage of domestic violence overwhelmingly focuses on physical abuse — think of the photos, the police reports, the restraining.
Contradictory findings have emerged from gender-sensitive research examining the intergenerational transmission of marital aggression. Intimate partnership violence and battering as its frequently part, has specific, long-term negative health consequences for victims, even after the abuse has ended.
Measures of the coercive control include verbal threats, financial control, emotional abuse, sexual abuse, and threats against the children, belongings, or pets. Negative effects can manifest as poor health status, poor quality of life, and high use of health services. It is also associated with overuse of health services. Battering in intimate partnership violence is also one of the most common causes of injury in women.
An injuries, fear, and stress can result in chronic health problems as chronic pain by headache, back pain. This was found also as past, in childhood experiencing sexual abuse, or both. The combination of physical and sexual abuse that characterizes at least per cent group of battered women puts these women at an even higher risk for health problems than women only physical assaulted. Physical intimate partner violence was found to be correlated to hearing loss, angina, with cardiovascular problems, gastric reflux, and bladder or kidney infections.
It was found also higher level of emotional distress, thoughts, or attempts of suicide among women who had ever experienced physical or sexual violence than those who had not. In addition, intimate partnership violence has also been linked with: His meta analysis also found that At this point it should be noted that different authors mention slightly different major forms of psychological abusive behavior.
Osofsky notes that several studies have found that per cent families in which a woman is battered, children are also battered.
She presents also his research data and states that in homes where domestic violence occur children are physically abused and neglected at the rate 15 times higher than is national average. Such children are excessive irritable, show immature behavior patterns, sleep disturbances, emotional distress, fears of being alone and regression in toiling and language. Campbell and Lewandowski cite the research results of Slusi, who has been found that violence becomes traumatic when victim does not have ability to consent or dissent and are passive observer with feeling of helplessness and hopelessness.
They also highlight the research of Mc Closky et al. Later controlled studies indicated cognitive and emotional responses such as higher level of internalizing anxiety, social withdrawal, depressionfewer interests and social activities, preoccupation with physical aggression, withdrawal and suicidal ideation; behavioral disorders aggressiveness, hyperactivity, conduct problemsreduced social competence, school problems, truancy, bulling, excessive screaming, clinging behaviors, speech disorders; physical symptoms headache, bed wetting, disturbed sleeping, vomiting, failure to thrive, diarrhea.
What is in a relationship between the sexes change? Especially, as we know, that violence in relationship between men and women has always existed, and has been well evidenced by many literary works in the past from the ancient Greek tragedies forward?
Have the traditional gender roles significantly altered and imbalance of power and control in relationship produces new sources of tension between men and women? Or is a just now possible to express experience, which has been previously strictly retained behind domestic walls? Is its extent and severity actually in increase, and it raised in modern society from a complex of factor interactions?
Domestic violence which consequences can affect quality of life not only of both participants, but also their children, and the elderly parents, if they living with them, enter today not only in schools, police, health and social care services, but also in criminal justice system.
Due to consequently high costs and unfavorable economic effects they have been declared as a political problem which demands appropriate solutions. But, despite that the intimate partnership violence and abuse become today a major public health problem and one of the most widespread violators of the human rights, some found that this problem is still under-acknowledged in all European countries, as it is throughout the world.
The fact is that the research data of violence and abuse between men and women sometimes differ, often because still various basic approaches and the way the data has been obtained.
But on the other side just this could contribute to the more complex understanding phenomenon perception, too. More problematic is, according to my observations, the integration this knowledge into everyday practice, particularly to those who are responsible and are first instance to detect problems in the family, assess the level of a risk, form a plan of protection and support, and implement it in the appropriate measures.
Let us highlight two problems: In such a situation can be of great help right a sensible, well-educated professional person. Second problem is public widespread belief that draws attention and calls for a rethinking about stereotypes that partner violence is an almost uniquely male and that when men assault their partner, it is primary to dominate women, whereas violence, perpetrated by women is always an act of self-defense or an act of desperation in response to male dominance and cruelty.
It is suggested that such limitations in mind known also as gender paradigm, should be replaced. This could confirm also by my own experiences of an expert witness. Perpetrators of domestic violence at the police and in court in fact are predominantly men and those who have decided to first break the wall of silence are usually women and not other side.
Men extremely rare seek for help and ask protection from female violence, but if they do it, they soon leave the treatment, dissatisfied that there have not been well understood.
Domestic violence and abuse - NHS
They are confronted with social services and their professionals usually after their female partners have been lodged there a complaint against them. On this basis someone even be able to conclude that women more easily adopted a position of powerlessness, are able to ask for help, usually better articulate their crisis, and are also more impressive in their role as victims than other side.
Some concrete examples speak for the fact that the one-side reports could be accepted, particularly because belief that in the role of victim could appear only a woman.
In case of ex-wives false profess for a man begins a long battle as this at windmills. Still in the first phase, at hearings at police and social care services, he can be considered as offender and he could collected and submitted papers to passed with attributed guilt, but nobody reads them exactly, so as he could find credible witnesses, but no one really listen to them. Conclusions The occurrence of domestic violent behavior and its multiple consequences for the individual, family, and community should be seen from the health public approach and need for a proactive prevention strategies on first level of actions.
As long as violent behavior patterns within family may be accepted as a private matter of its members, and its causes and effects on them, and more broadly on public health, will be overlooked, we could not expected any changes in this case.
Therefore it is required to achieve that among adult persons in society the tolerance for all forms of violence, both in family as in a society, is at point zero. It is necessary to involves efforts school, youth settings, work placeswhich reduce aggressive incidents in intimate relationship and family as a whole before they occur and focus on changing social attitudes, raising public awareness media, politics, etcand at the same time introduce a new values, thinking processes, and relationship skills which promote health interpersonal relationship and are incompatible with violence.
It could be done also by collaborative efforts by school and communities and provide children and youth with information about local resources, and how to response to domestic violence situations. Only the criminal prosecutions against the perpetrators cannot reach the desired effects.
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Domestic violence - Wikipedia
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Women who perpetrate intimate partner violence: Agress Violent Behav ; Hamel J, Nicholls TL, editors.
Economic abuse may involve preventing a spouse from resource acquisition, limiting what the victim may use, or by otherwise exploiting economic resources of the victim. Abusive relations have been associated with malnutrition among both mothers and children. In India, for example, the withholding of food is a documented form of family abuse. Limitations of methodologysuch as the conflict tactics scalethat fail to capture injury, homicide, and sexual violence rates,  context e.
For example, using broader terms like family violence rather than violence against women. Straus concluded that most IPV perpetrated by women against men is not motivated by self-defense.
A review from the journal Psychology of Violence found that women suffered disproportionately as a result of intimate partner violence, especially in terms of injuries, fear, and posttraumatic stress disorder. The authors found that when partner abuse is defined broadly to include emotional abuse, any kind of hitting, and who hits first, partner abuse is relatively even.
They also stated if one examines who is physically harmed and how seriously, expresses more fear, and experiences subsequent psychological problems, domestic violence is significantly gendered toward women as victims. While it is generally outlawed in the Western worldthis is not the case in many developing countries.